Chapter 5. Metadata Schemas

Chapter 5 section titles

5.1 Background
5.2 Resource Identification
5.3 Namespaces
5.4 Schema Encoding
5.4.1 Relational Schema
5.4.2 XML Schema
5.4.3 Schema Encoding in Mixed Namespaces
5.5 Encoding Examples of Metadata Standards
5.5.1 Dublin Core Encoding Schemas
5.5.2 EAD XML Schema
5.5.3 DLESE Metadata Framework XML Schemas
5.6 Summary

Links to sources

Web pages host specifications (schemas and documentations)





Lightweight Information Describing Objects (LIDO)

VRA Core 4.0

Dublin Core

Digital identifier systems for people, organizations, and objects

Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Try search doi:10.10.1038/nphys1170 (Journal article) || doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.726855 (Dataset)

International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI). About (pdf) || Try: http://isni.org/isni/0000000078613326 find on VIAF

Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID). Try: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7094-2867 and http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1977-018X

ResearcherID. Try: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/G-6513-2010

Ten Rules for Persistent URIs

ADN (ADEPT/DLESE/NASA) xmlns="http://adn.dlese.org"..... 231

Europeana Data Model (EDM) Documentation ..... 239

Dublin Core XML Schemas ..... 240

EAD 2002 Schema ..... 241

DLESE ADN Metadata Framework version 0.6.50 .....243


A wide variety of XML tools are available from the W3C XML web site, www.w3.org/XML/Schema#Tools. Choose one from the tool list, such as XMLSpy or the oXygen XML Editor, and install it on your computer prior to practicing the exercises for this chapter. For XML schema and record examples, refer to the W3Schools XML Schema Tutorial listed in the suggested readings.

A. Create an XML schema and apply to metadata creation

1. Many online music sites offer brief descriptions for albums and information
on the tracks contained in these albums (e.g., in CD format).

The following descriptive elements are typical data presented to users:
• Artist (or artists) • Date of release • Rating
• Album title • Publisher • Track names
• Genre • Price

Before you start creating the schema file, analyze these eight elements to determine:

  • a. whether there are any sub-elements, or whether an element needs a set of predefined values (enumerated values)
  • b. whether an element is mandatory or optional
  • c. whether an element is repeatable

Use an XML editor (e.g., XMLSpy or oXygen XML Editor) to start a new schema file in either the text-view or graphic-view interface. Define each element (including sub-elements, if any) with a name and annotation (for definition), and specify mandatory/optional conditions and cardinalities (number of occurrences). Upon completion, make sure to save the file in .xsd format.

2. Choose an album to create an XML record using the schema you created for exercise 1. To start a new XML file, select File New in
the XML software you installed on your computer. When you are prompted for a schema, select the schema file and start entering data.
This time, make sure to save the file in .xml format.

3. When an album contains multiple tracks of songs, some songs may have different composers, arrangers, lyricists, and performers. Do
you think the schema you created for exercise 1 will be sufficient for describing albums with multiple tracks and multiple creators, contributors, and performers? If not, how will you modify your XML schema to meet the description needs? Briefly explain your rationale for either a modification or making no changes.

4. Revise (as necessary) the XML schema you created for exercise 1 based on your analysis in exercise 3 to accommodate description needs for albums with multiple tracks, multiple creators, contributors, and performers. Either way, in the revised XML schema you will need to incorporate at least two elements from the DC namespace and create a namespace for your home-grown elements, which will include both those from exercise 1 and (if applicable) any new elements in the revised version. Make sure to save the new version in .xsd format, with a clearly marked version number.

5. Create an XML record for an album using the XML schema from exercise 4. The chosen album must have multiple tracks and multiple
composers, arrangers, lyricists, and performers.

B. Create an XML schema for the chapter 4 exercise

Create an XML schema for the element set you developed in the chapter 4 exercise.
In addition: apply the schema to create two description sets (records) for two items you used in the chapter 4 exercise.


Costello, Roger L. 2006. "XML Schemas: Best Practices." http://www.xfront.com/BestPracticesHomepage.html.

D7.1.3 — Study on Persistent URIs, with Identification of Best Practices and Recommendations on the Topic for the MSs and the EC. 2012. Phil Archer, Stijn Goedertier, and Nikolaos Loutas. Deliverable released by European Commission IsA Programme. http://joinup.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/D7.1.3%20-%20Study%20on%20persistent%20URIs.pdf.

Manola, Frank, Eric Miller, and Brian McBride. 2014. "RDF 1.1 Primer." W3C Working Group Note 25 February 2014. http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-primer/.

Refsnes Data. 2007. "XML Schema Tutorial." W3Schools. http://www.w3schools.com/schema/default.asp.

Srivastava, Rahul. 2007. "XML Schema: Understanding Namespaces." Oracle Technology Network. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/articles/srivastava-namespaces-092580.html.

van der Vlist, Eric. 2001. "Using W3C XML Schema." O'Reilly Media. http://www.xml.com/pub/a/2000/11/29/schemas/part1.html.

W3C. 1999. XML Schema Requirements. XML Schema Working Group. http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-xml-schema-req.

W3C. 2004. XML Schema Part 0: Primer Second Edition. W3C Recommendation 28 October 2004. http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/.