Chapter 3. Creating Metadata Descriptions

Chapter 3 section titles

3.1 Requirements for Metadata
3.2 Basic Unit of Metadata
3.2.1 Metadata Statement, Description, and Description Set
3.2.2 Relationships between Resources
3.3 Knowing the Difference
3.4 Levels of Granularity
3.4.1 Describing Individual Items that Constitute a Collection:
Item-level Description
3.4.2 Describing the Entirety of a Collection: Collection-level Description
3.4.3 Dataset Level Metadata
3.4.4 Resource Decomposition
3.5 Metadata Sources
3.5.1 Manual Generation of Metadata
3.5.2 Automatic Generation of Metadata
3.5.3 Combination of Manual and Automatic Methods
3.5.4 Harvested Metadata
3.5.5 Converted Metadata
3.5.6 User-Contributed Metadata through Social Media
3.6 Metadata Storage
3.6.1 Internal Storage
3.6.2 External Storage
3.7 Expressing Metadata
3.7.1 HTML
3.7.2 XML
3.7.3 RDF/XML and other RDF serialization formats
3.8 Linkage, Wrapper, Display, and Parallel Metadata
3.8.1 Linking between Descriptions for Different Resources
3.8.2 Wrapping
3.8.3 Encoding for Display
3.8.4 Encoding for Bilingual Metadata Statements
3.9 Combining Metadata Descriptions
3.9.1 METS
3.9.2 RDF/XML
3.9.3 Aggregation

Links to sources

Figure 3-2-3 CDWA's Entity-Relationship Diagram ..... 88


Section 3.5.6 User-Contributed Metadata through Social Media ..... 112-114

Figure 3-6-1 A screenshot of the front-end entry of a computer science technical report from Caltech Collection of Open Digital Archives(Persistent URI: http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechCSTR:2002.003) ..... 116

Figure 3-6-2 Metadata statements embedded in the entry. [Please choose (1) Tools=>WebDeveloper=>Page Source and (2) Tools=> Page Info using Firefox browser..... 117

Figure 3-6-6 A screenshot of record editing using ContentDM software ..... 122

Figure 3-6-7 A web-accessible database displaying metadata records in a table ..... 123

Figure 3-6-8 Individual metadata record in the Cleveland Memory Project database ..... 123

Figure 3-7-2 Metadata etc. web site's HTML document where, in the <body> section, RDFa codes are added (#1), from which the structured data (#3) are extracted using RDFa Play software [To try by yourself: please open the text file and follow the instruction] ..... 129

Figure 3-7-3 Visualization of the structured data (#3 in figure 3-7-2), generated using RDFa Play software..... 130

A VRA Core record examples provided by VRA

Figure 3-7-6 Graph of the metadata description set using the RDF/XML codes from exhibit 3-7-3, generated by W3C RDF Validation Service ..... 135

Figure 3-9-1 The METS Architecture, composite based on McDonough, 2006 ..... 145

METS Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard..... 147

Figure 3-9-4 Visualization of three "resources" described and graphs connected, generated using W3C RDF Validation Service..... 149


1. Open any Microsoft Word document and add metadata descriptions.

Instructions: Choose File Properties, then fill in the template provided in the Summary and Custom windows.
(To complete this exercise, Microsoft Word software is needed.)

2. Open a PDF file and add metadata descriptions.

Instructions: Choose File =>Document Properties and fill in values. Also try Additional Metadata and Advanced and explore different schemes of properties.
(To complete this exercise, Adobe Acrobat software is needed.)

3. Open an image from Adobe Photoshop or Adobe Bridge and add metadata descriptions.

Instructions for CS5:
–– Option 1: Open the image form by choosing File Browse (or Browse in Bridge). Select an image to preview and add metadata.
–– Option 2: Choose File=> File Info and fill in values in the Description template.
This is the same process as using an Adobe Acrobat for PDF files. After adding the metadata statements, choose Edit --> Find and set search criteria to find the image you just described.
(To complete this exercise, Adobe Photoshop CS software is needed. Note that different versions of CS may perform slightly differently.)

4. Use the DC-template provided by the book's web site to create a metadata description.

(1) Go to http://metadataetc.org/dctemplate.html, enter the data value in each field and submit.
(2) Click the dropdown list to choose your desired output format -- Preview mode, HTML, or XML. You may copy any version of the output into a separate WORD or HTML file.
(3) Analyze descriptions based on section 3.7.2's explanations.

5. Create metadata descriptions using CONTENTdm.

(To complete this exercise, a CONTENTdm client and an account are needed. Go to www.oclc.org/en-US/contentdm/ordering.html for a free 60-day hosted trial or a full evaluation copy.)

6. Create a VRA XML record using oXygen software.

(To complete this exercise, an oXygen client and a license are needed. Go to www.oxygenxml.com/ to obtain a free 30-day trial license.)


Baca, Murtha, Patricia Harpring, Elisa Lanzi, Linda McRae, and Ann Whiteside, eds. 2006. "VIII. Database Design and Relationships." Cataloging Cultural Objects, A Guide to Describing Cultural Works and Their Images, 20−27. Chicago: American Library Association. http://cco.vrafoundation.org/index.php/toolkit/cco_pdf_version/.

Baker, Thomas. 2012. "Libraries, Languages of Description, and Linked Data: A Dublin Core Perspective." Library Hi Tech 30 (1):116−33.

Greenberg, Jane. 2002. "Metadata Generation: Processes, People and Tools." Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 29 (2):16-19. http://www.asis.org/Bulletin/Dec-02/greenberg.html.

NISO Framework Advisory Group. 2007. A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections. 3rd ed. http://www.niso.org/publications/rp/

Shreeves, Sarah, Jenn Riley, and Liz Milewicz. 2006. "Moving Towards Shareable Metadata." First Monday 11 (8). http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1386/1304


Manola, Frank, Eric Miller, and Brian McBride. 2014. "RDF 1.1 Primer. W3C Working Group Note 25 February 2014." http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-primer/.

Powell, Andy, Mikael Nilsson, Ambjörn Naeve, Pete Johnston, and Thomas Baker. 2007. "DCMI Abstract Model." http://dublincore.org/documents/